Glossary


Aerodynamics -section Aeromechanics, studying the laws of motion of gaseous environment and its force interaction with moving in her sleek solid bodies. It is the theoretical basis for aviation, meteorology.The main tasks solved by the aerodynamics, the definition of a lift force and power of resistance, the distribution of pressure and flow directionon the surface of solid bodies in the air stream.
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Aerostatics - part of aerodynamics, which studies the conditions of equilibrium of gases (especially air) and the action of fixed gas to dive into them a solid case.
Alkyd resins -products of interaction of polybasic acids, polyatomic alcohols and monobasic fatty acids.The most common alkyd resins, derived from phthalic acid and glycerol orpentaeritrin.Alkyd resins are produced in the form of 40-60% solutions in organic solvents(toluon, xylon etc.). Applied mainly for the preparation ofvarnishes.
Introduction in the composition of metal alloys of the so-called alloying elements for change of structure of alloys, giving them certain physical, chemical or mechanical properties.Alloying elements is usually injected into the molten metals.

Alumox - advantageous finished silica-free corundum binder designed for investment molds that do not interact with the metal cast (heavily alloyed steel, heat-resisting alloy, titanium etc.). At a temperature up to 19000 C.

Includes artillery guns, devices of the artillery anti-aircraft firecontrol, ammunition and vehicles.
Complex of anti-aircraft guided missiles, launchers, flight control systems, auxiliary equipment, control-test equipment, systematic vehicles, storage and supply of missiles. There are both terrestrial and marine.
Means of protection of people, mechanisms, military vehicles, ships and long-term fortifications from the action of bullets, artillery shells, aerial bombs, torpedoes and other means of destruction.Also is anti-nuclear protection.In military equipment is used mainly armor of steel.In addition to steel, there is the armor of aluminium alloys, plastic materials, ceramic and composite materials.
Aviation-flying on apparatus heavier than the air in the near-earth air space.In the aviation use airplanes, helicopters, gliders, as well asgyroplanes, rotorcrafts.

The basis for development of technical means of aviation is a number of scientific disciplines:aerodynamics and gas dynamics, theory of engines, etc.,the basis of their application - aircraft navigation.

Distinguish civil aviation and military aviation.For the provision of passenger and cargo traffic for the airlines of the citizens, aviation has at its disposal: the Park of turbo-active, turboprops and propeller planes and helicopters; airfields and airports; control services, ground and airborne radio-engineering, meteorological and other means of ensuring flight.

The armament of the military aviation are:
- bombers - strategic, front-line;
-fighter-bombers, fighters;
-reconnaissance aircraft;
-military-transport aircraft;
-helicopters and rotorcrafts.


The engine for propulsion of aircraft (airplanes, helicopters, airships, etc.). Aircraft engines have great power or thrust, with minimal weight and the size, high reliability in operation.The main types of aircraft engines are piston engines, turbo engines, turbojet engines anddual circuitturbojet engines.As an auxiliary for aircraft engines, on planes used rocket engines.Turbo propeller aircraft engines are installed on helicopters, are calledturboshaft.
Ballistic missile -the rocket, a flight of which takes place on a ballistic trajectory (the trajectory of motion of the body in the absence of aerodynamic lift force).A ballistic missile in contrast to the cruise missile, has no bearing surfaces, intended for creation of aerodynamic lift force during the flight in the atmosphere.In some cases ballistic missiles supply with stabilizers to ensure the aerodynamic stability of the flight.Ballistic missiles include combat missiles, (including Intercontinental), carrier rocket, space rockets, etc. Ballistic missiles can be single - and multi-stage.
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Polymers with regulated time of operation and damaged in a result of natural (microbiological and biochemical) processes.
Agglomerationin the product of fine grain materials with the addition of binder
Carbon compound with metals and some nonmetals.Properties and fields of application of carbides are extremely varied.Metal-like carbides is the most tight-melting of all known substances, strong,wear-resistant, heat-resistant.Ceramic-metal materials with carbides from tungsten, titanium, tantalum, niobium, etc. , is the best material for metal cutting and drilling rocks; from them made the blades for gas turbines and jet engine components.Covalent carbides are very solid and chemical-resistant materials.From salt-shaped carbides the most well-known is calcium carbide.Valuable properties of carbide are used in nuclear technology, aerospace, microelectronics,metalworkingand many other fields.
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Fibres with a mass fraction of carbon not less than 90%, obtained bypyrolysisof the original organic fibres.Carbon fibers are used as a reinforcing filler of composite materials.
Change of speed of a chemical reaction in the presence of the substances entering into the intermediate interaction with reactive substances,but restoring by the end of the conversion its structure.Usually, under the catalysis understand only the acceleration of reaction, but it is possible and the reverse case.
Polymer composite material consisting of carbon-fibrous filler, located in a matrix from the polymer (for example, epoxy) resins.
1. Association of small particles of disperse systems in larger under the influence of the forces of adhesion with the formation ofcoagulationstructures.

2.Coagulation - physico-chemical process of adhesion of the colloidal particles.The process of phase separation with the help of substances (coagulants), which contribute to the consolidation and the deposition of particles, which are in the liquid phase in the form of suspension.
Liquid or solid product of thermal processing of coal tar.
Liquid product obtained in the process of coking coal charge.
The aggregate of thermal processing (coking) of coal mixtures to obtain coke
Area of scientific and technical knowledge, industry of industrial production of coke and chemicals from coal.

Natural material with a high content of carbon, able to give metallurgical coke.
Electrostatic rocket engine with thejet propulsion, consisting of relatively heavy electrically charged colloidal particles.In colloidal rocket engine to obtain an acceptable exhaust velocity requires very high accelerating voltage.
Artificially created heterogeneous solid material, consisting of two or more components with a clear boundary of the section between them.In the majority of composites (except for the layered) components can be divided into the matrix and included in her reinforcing elements.In composites engineering destination reinforcing elements usually provide all the necessary mechanical characteristics of the material (strength, rigidity, etc.), and the matrix (or binding) provides for joint work of reinforcing elements and protect them from mechanical damage and aggressive chemical environment.
Product of vapour condensation, i.e. its transition from the gaseous to the liquid phase in the result of cooling.
Mechanical separation of the solid phase of disperse systems (suspensions) from the liquid bydraining the solution from the sediment.The liquid is separated from the sediment by decantation method is called decantate.
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Changing the shape or size of the body under the action of external forces, when heating or cooling, humidity changes and other impactscausing change in the relative positions of the particles of the body.

1. Dissociation of water from molecules of chemical compounds.Carried outthermally or under the influence of substances, binding water.
2.Separation of surface moisture, water of crystallization, the chemical degradation of substances with release of water molecules.
Change the size, shape, weight or condition of the surface of the product due to destruction of the surface layer of the productby friction.Depreciation - parts of machines, construction elements, parts of clothing, etc. - depends on the friction conditions and material properties of the product.Distinguish abrasive, cavitation, contact-fatigue and other types of depreciation.Depreciation leads to a decrease in the quality of the products and their values.
Method of separation, located in a solution, of colloidal particles and macromolecules from salts and other low-molecular substances.
The ability of a material to resist the action of the dynamic loads without failure or without significant change of form.
Silicon based Emulsions have different support depending on their purpose. Hydrophobic emulsions are produced on the basis of hydride siloxane fluids and are widely used for the treatment of constructional materials, textiles, furs, leather to provide water repellency, shrinkage reduction, to increase abrasion resistance, acid and alkali stability.
Emulsion spacer fluids and defoaming emulsions are based on polymethylsiloxane fluids and are employed in machine building, oil refining and food industry for foam suppression and mold treatment in the process of polymer goods manufacturing.
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Energiya (Energy) M - phytohormone (biologically active silicon). Despite adverse weather conditions occurring in various edaphic-climatic zones of the RF, Energiya - M application allows 15-45% yield increase compared with the control.
Materials formed by interlacing of mutually perpendicular glass fiber filaments. From fiberglass manufacture glass, filters for hot aggressive solutions, drapes of radio stations, movie screens and etc.
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Non-woven fabrics, obtained by the method of aerodynamic molding of polymer solution and consisting of fibres, inside which introduced various finely-chopped sorbents: activated coles, ion exchange resins, active oxides of metals,silica gel, etc.
1. The process of separation of solid and liquid phases on the filter.

2.Movement of liquid or gas through a porous medium.
Surgical polyester spun thread with a coating on the basis of thefluoroelastomer.Fluoropolymer coating eliminates capillarityandwicking, increases the reliability of the surgical site, provides atraumatic when carrying out through the tissues.It is used in surgery for sutures, ligatures and a complete set of atraumatic surgical needles.
Fiber of round or profile section derived from the melt glass.Glass fiber in the form of wire harness, twisted yarns, tapes, fabrics, nonwoven materials, etc. used in modern technology as reinforcing material, as well as for filtering, production of electric insulating products, etc.
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Polymer composite material consisting of glass-fibrous filler, located in a matrix of the polymer (for example, epoxy) resins.
Natural or synthetic substances, used for connection of different materials due to the formation of adhesion bond of adhesive film with the surfaces of the bonded materials.According to the physical state, adhesives represent liquids of different viscosity, films, powders or bars, melted before use and applicated on the hot surfaces.By nature of the main component, adhesives distinguish inorganic, organic and organoelemental.
The ability of materials at high temperatures withstand without damage, the mechanical load.Is achieved by selection of the chemical composition of the alloy in combination with certain crystallizationconditionsand heat treatments, providing a required structure of the alloy.
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Multilayer structures consisting of several (usually two) plating - carrying layers, united with honeycomb filler.Polypropylene honeycomb is a cellular structure, the walls of which are made of glass-plastic, polymeric paper, aluminium, etc.
Electromagnetic radiation wavelengths of which are in the range from 0.77 microns to 1 mm.Infrared radiation emit a heated body.The study of the spectra of absorption of infrared radiation substances helps to find out the structure of molecules.It is widely used in engineering.
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Transparent fragile material, obtained by cooling of the melt containing glass-forming components and oxides of metals.According to the type of glass-forming component distinguish inorganic silicate glass, borate glass, borosilicate glass, alumo-silicate glass, Boro-alumo-silicate glass, etc.Properties: optical, mechanical, thermal, etc. - it is widespread in various branches of engineering, construction, industry, decorative arts, in everyday life.
The structure which is forming from non-hardened or partially hardened components with the possibility of acceding to them also hardened elements and the subsequent joint forming the whole structure for one technological cycle.
Metal systems, one component of which is iron.Usually contain impurities, as well as the alloying elements.
The variety of the chemical element, atomic nuclei that contain the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.
Extraction of one or several components from solid bodies by aqueous solution, containing alkali, acid or other reagent.Leaching is accompanied by a chemical reaction, as a result of which the extracted component goes from not soluble forms to soluble.
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Low temperature heat transfer silicone fluid PMS-1.5 is designed for temperature-control systems in space and radio engineering devices serviceable within a temperature range from minus 1100C to plus 1500S (in a closed-loop system), as well as damping liquid.

The glass-covered on one side of a thin layer of metal, sputtered in the molten form of compressed air or caused by other means, such as from solutions, evaporation in vacuum.From metal glass manufacture mirrors and glass with the electro-heated surface.
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Solid product of the coking process of coal mixtures.
Obsolete name of unit of length - micrometer.
Methylchlorosilanes, ethylchlorosilanes, phenylchlorosilanes etc.) - raw material for polymers, production (fluids, resins, elastomers, rubbers, compounds etc.).
Surgical nylon thread with anti-microbial effect.The presence of a medicinal product - doxycycline - reduces the reaction of tissues to suture material, provides prevention and treatment of surgical sepsis.Used for operations on the occasion of purulent-septic diseases, in the conditions of bacterial contamination of the wound surface.
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Simple substances that do not possess the properties of metals: they don't have a glint of metal, not forging, poor conductors of heat and electricity;in chemical reactions non-metal atoms is characterized by the succession to receive electrons.
Canvases and articles of fibres and threads, connected to each other without the use of methods of spinning and weaving.The main stage of obtaining of non-woven materials is the bond of fibrous base, obtained by one of the methods: mechanical, physical-chemical, aerodynamic, hydraulic or thermal.
Modified textile material, containing drugs, possessing the deformation-strength properties and ability to be modeled in the form of the object.
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Technical name of transparent plastics on the basis of polymethylmethacrylate, polystyrene, polycarbonate, PVC and others. Compared to the inorganic glass it is characterised by a relatively low density and high durability.Organic glass little sensitive to shocks, jolts and gives no dangerousshards.Used for the manufacture of safety 3-layer glass for glazing of the aircraft, cars, etc. From him manufactured parts of instruments, lenses, light-filters and conventional products.
Polymer composite material consisting of fibrous filler organic nature, distributed in a matrix from the polymer (for example, epoxy) resins.
Thread or fiber derived from homo-and copolymers of acrylonitrile, one of the molding methods of spinning solution in an organic or inorganic solvent (wet, dry-wet, dry).It is used as the main raw material for the production of carbon fiber.
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Thermochemical processing productof stone-coal pitch.
Solid product of the coking process of coal pitch.
Plastics - material based on natural or synthetic polymers, capable under the influence of heat and pressure be molded in the articles of complex configuration then steadily maintain the given form.
Hetero-phase system consisting of two or more components, where one component is a polymer matrix, in which in a certain way allocated another component (filler), separated from the matrix with border section.Their interaction on border of section providesthe properties of the polymer composite material other than the aggregate properties of the components.
Semifinished polymer composite material obtained by a combination of fibrous filler and the polymeric binder.
Value, characterizing the intensity of the forces acting on any part of the surface of the body for the directions perpendicular to the surface.The pressure is determined by the ratio of force, uniformly distributed along the normal to her surface, to the area of this surface.
Are used in Bank notes, securities and documents as one of the types of technological protection (along with water marks,microperforation, hologram, etc.).Protective fibers and threads are being implemented in the paper in its production.Can be transparent or coloured, and have a metallic or rainbow cover,micro text, glow in ultraviolet rays, magnetic properties.
Glass, produced by melting of natural varieties of rock crystal, vein quartz and quartz sand, as well as synthetic silicon dioxide.Quartz glass has high heat-resistance (14000), thermal resistance, dielectric properties, chemical resistance.From quartz glass is produced chemically refractory dishes, evaporating Cup for sulfuric acid, it is also widely used in electrical engineering, optics, medicine.
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Construction, heterogeneous dielectrics with a one-layer or multi-layer structure, do not modify significantly the amplitude and the phase passing through them electromagnetic waves of radio-frequency spectrum.Radioparent materials are used mainly for the manufacture of fairings and shelters antennas of the radar stations.
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Fibers of different nature (carbon, glass, ceramic, metallic, organic, etc.), used in the manufacture of composite materials to make the last of the strength properties in the direction of the fibers.
Fragile vitreoussubstancefrom light-yellow to dark-red color; the density 1007-1085 kg/m3; the softening temperature 52-700 .

Low molecular dimethylsiloxane Rubbers, also called «OH-polymers,», are the basic raw material for large capacity silicone RTV compositions (one - or two part sealants). The materials based on siloxanes low molecular rubbers possess a valuable property package: high thermal - and frost resistance, chemical stability, radiation hardness, elevated adhesion and are widely used in various branches of industry, such as machine industry, shipbuilding, air industry, construction, consumer industry etc.
Transparent structural material, consisting of 2-3 or more sheets of silicate or organic glass, glue between each other with a polymer tapes.Safety glass when struckor concentrated pressure does not constitute fragments with cutting edges.It is mainly applied for glazing of the vehicle.
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Composite materials on the basis of rubber, stabilizer and a catalyst.Sealants type Elasil have high operational characteristics: - a wide interval of working temperatures; - high dielectric characteristics; - weather resistance; - biological inertness and etc.
1. The settling of the particles of the dispersed phase in liquid or gas under the action of gravitational field or centrifugal forces.

2.A method for determining particle size by deposition time in liquids.
Silicones - Si-O-Si bond - containing compounds. Silicones are the only compound class combining organic and inorganic compound properties. This allows their application in tropical climate, eternal frost, low vacuum and high pressure.
A rocket to launch a spacecraft in outer space, satellite orbit and to other celestial bodies.Modern space rocket - the multi-stage ballistic missile, for interplanetary flights, with an additional missile stage or several stages, carrying a payload.When interplanetary flights, space rocket takes out into Earth orbit and then starts from this orbit.
Application of protective and decorative coatings by spraying liquid or chopped hard substance of a stream of compressed air.Spraying is widely used forpaint coatingsand for metallization.The new area of the spraying - plasma spraying of heat-resistant non-metal materials on metal products.
Artificial graphite, used for the manufacture of products and parts
Is a thread that is used to connect the tissues with the purpose of formation of a scar or a epithelization.
Off-system unit of a linear density of fibers or filaments, i.e. ratio of their weight to length.1 tex = 1 g/km= 1 mg/m. Describes the thickness of the materials.Tex replaced by thetiter, in which the unit of mass took denier (0,05 g), the unit of length - 450 m.
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Chemical agents (antistatic agents, softeners, lubricants, fixing agents, sizing agents, etc.)favorably affect on the processing of natural or chemical fibres and threads, for improvement of textile materials, giving them different properties (anti-static, water-repellent, etc.).
Alloys on the basis of tungsten with the addition of alloying elements.


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